Under IRS Form 1040, at the bottom of Schedule B, Part III, on Page 2, Question 7(a) states: “at any time during the previous year, did you have any interest in or signatory or other authority over a financial account in a foreign country, such as a bank account, a security account, or other financial account? The answer is either yes or no. If yes, Question 7(b) requires the name of the foreign country (with the account). Question 8 requires confirmation of receipt of distribution from the account, or if the Taxpayer was a grantor of, or transferor to a foreign trust (which requires filing Form 3520).
A willful failure to file a FBAR can lead to a felony of up to 10 years in jail and a $500,000 fine. The IRS must prove willfulness in order to assert the $500,000 monetary penalty and the imprisonment for up to 10 years (see 31 USC 5321(a)(5)(B); CCA 200603026; Eisenstein, 731 F.2d 1540 (CA – 11, 1984)).
Willfulness must be proven by the IRS under the standard of clear and convincing evidence. If the Taxpayer knew about the requirement to file, it would affect his defense. If the Taxpayer failed to report the foreign account interest or other income on his income tax return, it would affect his defense.
If a failure to file is deemed to be part of a criminal activity involving more than $100,000 in a 12-month period, the penalty limit increases to $500,000 with up to 10 years in jail. The issue of whether a failure to file is willful or non-willful is based on the facts of each case. Willfulness has been defined as the voluntary, intentional violation of a known legal duty, see Cheek 498 US 192, 67 AFTR 2d 91-344 (Supreme Court 1991).
A Taxpayer’s good faith belief that he does not have to file (or even his negligent failure to file) can be a defense to the charge of willful failure to file (i.e., a defense to criminal charges).
A defense may include that the Taxpayer was advised by his advisor that no FBAR was required.
Failure to maintain adequate records of the foreign account for the years the FBAR filing is due may result in additional civil and criminal penalties.