If a Foreign Trust has a U.S. grantor, and one or more U.S. beneficiaries, under IRC §679 the Trust is classified as a foreign grantor trust and all Trust income, deductions and credits must be reported on the U.S. Grantor’s personal tax returns (Federal tax return/Form 1040).
The 2010 Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act (“2010 HIRE Act”) included the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act which imposed new foreign grantor trust reporting obligations on Responsible Parties (i.e., U.S. Owners/ U.S. Settlor) of foreign grantor Trust (effective 3/18/10).
Since a U.S. grantor has neither the legal authority or the ability to force Foreign Trustees to file the Form 3520-A, the 2010 HIRE Act makes the grantor responsible to submit information to the IRS with respect to the Trust.
When a U.S. taxpayer forms a Foreign Grantor Trust, the following mandatory U.S. tax filings are required:
(1) Form SS-4 is to be filed immediately upon formation (this form is used to obtain the federal tax identification number for the Trust);
(2) Form 56 for reporting creation of fiduciary relationship (this form is filed upon the creation of the Trust, or is due with the first tax return filed for the Trust);
(3) Form 709
A transfer of Assets to a Foreign Trust may create a gift tax liability, dependent on whether or not there is a completed gift.
If the transfer is to an irrevocable, non-amendable trust there is a completed gift. In 2010, $1M in gifts are exempt from tax (Husband and Wife: $2M). The top gift tax rate of 35%, will be applicable to transfers over $500,000.
Although the estate tax is repealed in 2010, the gift tax remains in effect.
In 2010, there is an annual exclusion of $13,000 per donee for gifts ($26,000 for husband and wife, gift-splitting). There is an unlimited exclusion for payments of tuition and medical expenses.
Gifts to a non-citizen spouse are eligible for a gift tax annual exclusion of up to $134,000 (in 2010).
(4) Form 3520
This form is used to report transactions with foreign Trusts (and to report receipts of foreign gifts).
Form 3520 is sent to the IRS, P.O. Box 409101, Ogden, Utah 84409.
The U.S. Grantor of a Foreign Trust (as a responsible party) must notify the IRS of a reportable event: i.e., the creation of a foreign trust by a U.S. person, the transfer of money to a foreign trust by a U.S. person (including a transfer by reason of death), the death of a U.S. citizen or resident (if the decedent was treated as the owner of any portion of a foreign trust under the grantor trust rules or if any portion of the trust estate was included in the gross estate of the decedent).
The notice of “reportable event” is due on or before the 90th day after the reportable event and is satisfied by the Responsible Party filing Form 3520 (Annual Return to Report Transactions with Foreign Trusts and Receipt of Certain Foreign Gifts).
Responsible parties include: the grantor of an inter vivos trust, the transferor in a reportable event (other than by death), and the executor of a decedent’s estate.
U.S. beneficiaries of foreign trusts are subject to IRS reporting requirements, if they receive a distribution from the trust. IRS reporting includes: the name of the trust, the aggregate amount of the distributions received from the trust during the trust year (satisfied by filing Form 3520 with the IRS).
If a complete Form 3520 is not filed by the due date (including extensions), the time for assessment of any tax imposed, with respect to any event or period to which the information required to be reported, will not expire before the date that is three (3) years after the date on which the required information is reported.
Penalties (Form 3520 Filing)
If Form 3520 is not timely filed, or the information is incomplete or incorrect, the penalties imposed:
A penalty generally applies if Form 3520 is not timely filed or if the information is incomplete or incorrect. Generally, the penalty is:
• 35% of the gross value of any property transferred to a foreign trust for failure by a U.S. transferor to report the transfer,
• 35% of the gross value of the distributions received from a foreign trust for failure by a U.S. person to report receipt of the distribution, or
• 5% of the amount of foreign gifts for each month the report is not filed (not to exceed 25%)
(5) Form 3520-A
Form 3520-A is the annual information return of a foreign trust with at least on U.S. owner, which includes:
1. Annual tax Information about the Foreign Trust
2. Annual Tax Information about its U.S. Beneficiaries
3. Annual Tax Information about any U.S. person who is treated as an owner of any portion of the foreign trust
Form 3520-A is filed with the Internal Revenue Service Center P.O Box 409101, Ogden, Utah 84405 and is due by the 15th day of the 3rd month after the end of the trust’s tax year.
Any U.S. person that is treated as the owner of any portion of a foreign trust (under the grantor trust rules) is responsible to ensure that the trust satisfies IRS reporting requirements, annually, which include: a complete accounting of trust activities and operations for the year, the name of the U.S. agent for the trust, and provides information to each U.S. person who is treated as the owner of any portion of the trust or who receives a direct or indirect distribution from the trust. IRS reporting is satisfied by the filing of Form 3520-A and providing copies of the Foreign Grantor Trust Owner Statement and the Foreign Grantor Trust Beneficiary Statement to the U.S. owners and beneficiaries.
Copies of the Foreign Grantor Trust Owner Statement and Foreign Grantor Trust Beneficiary Statement must be sent to the U.S. owners and U.S. beneficiaries by the 15th day of the 3rd month after the end of the Trust’s tax year.
The U.S. owner is subject to a penalty equal to 5% of the gross value of the Trust’s assets treated as owned by the U.S. person at the close of that year if the foreign trust:
1. Fails to timely file Form 3520-A
2. Does not furnish all of the information required by IRC §6048(b) or includes incorrect information (IRC §6677(b))
The U.S. owner of a foreign trust is subject to a penalty of 5% of the gross value of the portion of the foreign trust’s assets treated as owned by that person at the close of that year if the foreign trust fails to timely file Form 3520-A or does not furnish certain required information. Additional penalties may be imposed if the failure to file or furnish information continues after the IRS mails a notice to the U.S. owner.
No penalties will be imposed if the U.S. owner can demonstrate that the failure to comply was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. The fact that a foreign country would impose penalties for disclosing the required information is not reasonable cause. Similarly, reluctance on the part of the foreign fiduciary or provisions in the trust instrument that prevent the disclosure of required information is to reasonable cause either.
Additional penalties may be imposed if noncompliance continues after the IRS mails a notice of failure to comply with required reporting.
Criminal penalties may be imposed under IRC §7203, 7206 and 7207 for failure to file on time and for filing a false or fraudulent return.
5. Appointment of U.S. Agent
Foreign Trust (U.S. Agent)
Under IRC §6048(b), any person who is treated as a grantor of all or any portion of a foreign trust must appoint a U.S. Agent for the Trust.
Failure to execute an authorization of Agent, binding upon the trust and the agent allows the IRS to make its own determination as to the amounts to be included by U.S. transferors under the grantor trust rules (IRC §6048(b)(2), Notice 97-34, Section IV (B)). The designation of a U.S. agent will not otherwise subject the agent to legal process and will not alone cause the foreign trust to have an office in the United States (IRC §6048(b)(2)).
If the Foreign Trust does not appoint a limited U.S. agent, for purposes of examination of books and witnesses, service of summons and enforcement of summons (IRC 7602 – 7604), the IRS may include in the grantor’s income anything it wants to include (IRC §6048(b)(2)(C)). The IRS can make whatever determination it wishes based on its own knowledge or information obtained through testimony or otherwise (IRC §6038A(e)(4) rules regarding judicial proceedings to quash a summons will apply).
6. Foreign Gifts
U.S. Persons that receive gifts from foreign individuals or entities must report such transfers on Form 3520 (Part IV Lines 62-64).
Generally, a U.S. Person must report on a Form 3520 (1) any gifts from a non-resident individual or foreign estate that collectively exceed $ 100,000, (2) any gifts from foreign corporations and foreign partnerships that collectively exceed $10,000 (adjusted for inflation). IRC §6039F.
In calculating the $100,000 threshold, the U.S. Person must aggregate gifts from different, foreign nonresident aliens and foreign estates if he or she knows (or has reason to know) that one of those person is acting as the nominee for the other person.
For tax years beginning in 2010, the reporting threshold amount for gifts from foreign corporations or partnerships is $14,165.
A gift to a U.S. donee does not include any amounts paid for qualified tuition or medical payments made on behalf of the U.S. donee.
The Form 3520 is due at the same time as the U.S. Person’s federal tax return, including extensions. But the Form is filed separately from that tax return (a copy should be attached to the Federal Tax Return).
If the U.S. Person, without reasonable cause, fails to disclose a foreign gift, the IRS has the right to determine the “proper” tax treatment of the gift, and the IRS’s determination (although reviewable) is subject to an arbitrary and capricious standard.
For each month that the failure continues, the U.S. Person is subject to a penalty of five percent of the gift for each month, up to a 25 percent maximum.
The IRS must issue a notice of deficiency and follow deficiency procedures in making any determination regarding the proper tax treatment of the gift, but it may summarily assess the five percent additional penalty.
7. Summary U.S. Tax Compliance Foreign Grantor Trusts (Foreign Gifts)
When a U.S. person receives a foreign gift, or establishes a foreign grantor trust, the following U.S. tax compliance is required:
1. Form 56 (upon trust formation)
2. Form SS-4 (for trust formation)
3. Form 3520 (on both trust formation within 90 days of the reportable event, or annually upon receipt of foreign gifts)
4. Form 3520-A (annually)
5. Form 709 (Gift Tax Returns) for transfer of Assets to fund a Foreign Trust
A copy of both Form 3520 and 3520-A is to be attached to the U.S. person’s tax return, with separate copies filed with the IRS in Ogden, Utah.
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (The “Act”) expands withholding rules and additional reporting requirements for foreign financial institutions and non-financial foreign entities.
Under U.S. tax law, a withholding agent must deduct or withhold a tax equal to 30% on any withholdable payment (e.g., interest, dividends, rents, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits and income from sources within the United States) made to a foreign financial institution or to a non-financial foreign entity (unless specific reporting requirements are met).
For each U.S. account maintained by the foreign financial institution, the institution must provide identifying information for each account holder that is a specified U.S. Person or substantial U.S. owner, the account number, the account balance, and gross receipts and withdrawals from the account.
A non-financial foreign entity that is a beneficial owner of a withholdable payment must certify that it has no substantial U.S. owners or provide identifying information for each substantial U.S. owner.
Every person required to deduct or withhold any tax to enforce reporting on certain foreign accounts is liable for the tax and is indemnified against claims and demands of anyone for the amount of the payments. (IRC §1474(a), as added by the 2010 HIRE Act.)
On March 18, 2010, President Obama signed the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment (“HIRE”) Act (P.L. 111-147) (The “Act”) which included the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act containing new foreign account tax compliance rules.
Under the Act, new reporting and disclosure requirements for foreign assets will be phased in between 2010 – 2013:
1. Foreign Institutional Reporting: Foreign Institutions have new reporting and withholding obligations for accounts held by U.S. Persons (generally effective after 12/31/12, commencing 1/1/13).
2. Foreign Financial Assets ($50,000): Individuals with an interest in a “Foreign Financial Asset” have new disclosure requirements. If foreign financial assets are valued in excess of $50,000, the U.S.
Taxpayer must attach certain information to their income tax returns for tax years beginning after March 18, 2010. (U.S. Taxpayers are not required to disclose interests that are held in a custodial account with a U.S. financial institution).
The penalty is substantial ($10,000, plus additional amounts for continued failures, up to a maximum of $50,000 for each applicable tax period). The penalty may be waived if the individual can establish that the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect.
3. 40% Penalty: A 40% accuracy-related penalty is imposed for underpayment of tax that is attributable to an undisclosed foreign financial asset understatement. Applicable assets are those subject to mandatory information reporting when the disclosure requirements were not met. The penalties are effective for tax years beginning after March 18, 2010.
4. 6 Year Statute of Limitations: Statute of limitations re: omission of income in connection with foreign assets: The statute of limitations for assessments of tax is extended to six (6) years if there is an omission of gross income in excess of $5,000 attributable to the foreign financial asset. The six year statute of limitations is effective for tax returns filed after March 18, 2010, as well as for any other tax return for which the assessment period has not yet expired as of March 18, 2010.
5. Passive Foreign Investment Companies: The Act imposes an information disclosure requirement on U.S. Persons who are PFIC shareholders.
A PFIC is any foreign corporation if:
a. 75% or more of the gross income of the corporation for the taxable year is passive income; or
b. The average percentage of assets held by such corporation during a taxable year which produce passive income or which are held for the production of passive income are at least 50%.
6. Foreign Trusts with U.S. Beneficiaries: The Act clarifies if a foreign trust is treated as having a U.S. Beneficiary, an amount accumulated is treated as accumulated for the U.S. Person’s benefit even if that Person’s trust interest is contingent. The Act clarifies that the discretion to identify beneficiaries may cause the trust to be treated as having a U.S. Beneficiary. This provision is effective after March 18, 2010.
7. Rebuttable Presumption/Foreign Trust – U.S. Beneficiary: The Act creates a rebuttable presumption that a foreign trust has a U.S. Beneficiary if a U.S. Person directly or indirectly transfers property to a foreign trust (unless the transferor provides satisfactory information to the contrary to the IRS). This provision is effective for property transfers after March 18, 2010.
8. Uncompensated Use of the Foreign Trust Property: The Act provides that the uncompensated use of the foreign trust property by a U.S. Grantor, a U.S. Beneficiary (or a U.S. Person, related to either of them), is treated as a distribution by the trust.
The use of the trust property is treated as a distribution to the extent of the fair market value of the property’s use to the U.S. Grantor/U.S. Beneficiary, unless the fair market value of that use is paid to the trust.
The loan of cash or marketable securities by a foreign trust, or the use of any other property of the trust, to or by any U.S. Person is also treated as paid or accumulated for the benefit of the U.S. Person. This provision applies to loans made and uses of property after March 18, 2010.
9. Reporting Requirements, U.S. Owners of Foreign Trusts: This provision requires any U.S. Person treated as the owner of any portion of a foreign trust to submit IRS-required information and insure that the trust files a return on its activities and provides such information to its owners and distributees.
This new requirement imposed on U.S. Persons treated as owners is in addition to the current requirement that such U.S. Persons are responsible for insuring that the foreign trust complies with its own reporting obligations. This provision is effective for taxable years beginning after March 18, 2010.
10. Minimum Penalty re: Failure to Report Certain Foreign Trusts: This provision increases the minimum penalty for failure to provide timely and complete disclosure on foreign trusts to the greater of $10,000 or 35% of the amount that should have been reported.
In the case of failure to properly disclose by the U.S. Owner of a foreign trust of the year-end value, the minimum penalty would be the greater of $10,000 or 5% of the amount that should have been reported.
This provision is effective for notices and returns required to be filed after December 31, 2009.
Each US Trustee of a trust account must file a FBAR (even if the beneficiary of the trust is not a US Person). If the owner of an account gave someone the power of attorney over the account, both the owner and the attorney-in-fact must file a FBAR (if both are US Taxpayers).
If a trust that holds a foreign financial account provides for a Protector, whose powers include directing distributions if the Protector is a US Person, the Protector must file a FBAR.
If several members of the same family have accounts, the FBAR rules apply to each account holder individually. The IRC §318 attribution rules do not apply to filing the FBAR.
Under the grantor trust rules (IRC §679) any US Person who establishes a foreign trust (which holds the foreign financial account), established by a US Person for any US beneficiary, the US Settlor is responsible for filing a FBAR for the trust accounts (even if the US Settlor of the trust is not a beneficiary, has no authority over the trust or any of the trust accounts). Under US tax rules, he is treated as the owner of the trust (for US income tax purposes) because the trust is deemed a grantor trust which makes him responsible to file the FBAR form.
Financial interest may be present even if there is no signatory authority. If a trust holds an account and the US Taxpayer has a present beneficiary interest in more than 50% of the trust assets, receives more than 50% of the trust assets, or receives more than 50% of the current trust income, he must file a FBAR.
If a trust has 2 or more beneficiaries and none of the beneficiaries has more than a 50% interest in the income of principal, then none of them needs to file a FBAR (although each US Trustee who is a US Taxpayer must file the FBAR). Regarding the rules for a discretionary trust, if a US Taxpayer receives distributions of more than 50% of trust income or principal in any given year, it requires filing the FBAR.
By Tom Brown, Reuters.com
The U.S. Justice Department said on Tuesday it was pressing ahead with its five-month-old lawsuit against UBS AG to force the Swiss bank to identify thousands of U.S. clients with secret UBS accounts.
Despite recent media speculation about a possible settlement of the case, the Justice Department said in a brief filed with a Florida court that it was seeking to enforce tax compliance with the full weight of U.S. law.
“The United States has a strong national interest in making sure that all U.S. taxpayers comply with the tax laws, including disclosing their offshore accounts, and paying all the taxes they owe,” the department said in the brief.
The U.S. government sued UBS in February in the U.S. Southern District Court of Florida, seeking the names of 52,000 Americans suspected of using the bank to hide nearly $15 billion in assets and evade U.S. taxes.
“The United States has proven its case for enforcement. The Court should order UBS to comply in full,” the Justice Department said in its filing.
In response, a spokesman for UBS said enforcement of the U.S. summons would require the bank to violate Swiss law and was inconsistent with U.S.-Swiss treaty frameworks.
A court hearing on the U.S. government case against UBS has been scheduled for July 13.
Click link above for complete article.
“Each year, in the
The threshold question is whether the taxpayer is a “U.S. Person.” A “U.S. Person” is generally defined as a
There are two types of
For taxpayers who disclaimed their
Foreign Corporation (Form 5471)/Foreign Partnership (Form 8865)
Any U.S. Person who controls a foreign corporation or foreign partnership during the tax year must file a Form 5471 (for a corporation) or Form 8865 (for a partnership). (IRC §6038.) These forms must be filed with the U.S. Person’s timely filed federal tax return (including extensions).
For foreign corporations, control means ownership (direct or indirect) of more than 50 percent of the outstanding stock or voting power for at least 30 consecutive days during the year. Treas. Reg. §1.6038-2. For foreign partnerships, control means direct or indirect ownership of a more than 50 percent interest in partnership profits, capital, or deductions or losses. It also includes certain groups of U.S. Persons, who collectively own more than a 50 percent and individually own more than a 10 percent interest in the foreign partnership.
Attribution and constructive ownership rules apply (a taxpayer with no direct ownership in the foreign corporation or partnership could potentially have a reporting obligation).
The check-the-box regulations provide default corporate status for certain foreign limited liability entities. A U.S. Person’s involvement with a foreign entity that does not resemble a corporation under local law may trigger a foreign corporation reporting obligation.
A violation of the Control Rule-, (i.e., failure to timely file a Form 5471 or Form 8865) has a double-penalty impact. First, the U.S. Person’s foreign tax amount used to compute the foreign tax credit is reduced by 10 percent. Second, the U.S. Person is subject to a flat $10,000 penalty.
Additional penalties apply if the violation continues for 90 days after IRS notice: (i) the foreign tax reduction increases by five percent for each three-month period, and (ii) there are additional $10,000 penalties for each 30-day period, up to $60,000 ($10,000 initial penalty and $50,000 maximum additional penalties). When both penalties apply, however, the foreign-tax penalty is reduced by the amount of the fixed-dollar penalty imposed.
The IRS must follow deficiency procedures and issue a notice of deficiency to the taxpayer with respect to the foreign tax credit reduction. The IRS may summarily assess the other penalties and collect them upon notice and demand.
These penalties may be avoided when the taxpayer proves that the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect.
Special Rules For Officers And Directors
Special rules apply for directors and officers of foreign corporations. A U.S. Person who becomes an officer or director of a foreign corporation, and owns at least 10 percent of the corporation’s stock (by value or vote), must also file a Form 5471. (IRC §6046.) Constructive stock ownership rules apply, although this rule generally requires that the U.S. Person directly own some amount of stock. The Form 5471 must be filed with the U.S. Person’s timely filed federal tax return, including extensions. In the absence of reasonable cause, the penalty for failure to timely file is $ 10,000, with additional penalties up to $50,000 for failure to cure the violation after IRS notice.
Rules For Property Transfers
Subject to certain exceptions, transfers of property by U.S. Persons to foreign corporations must be reported to the IRS. IRC §6038B. The U.S. Person must file a Form 926 with its timely filed income tax return for the year in which the transfer occurred. Transfers of cash to a foreign corporation are also reportable, provided that (i) immediately after the transfer the U.S. Person owns 10 percent (by vote or value) of the corporation, or (ii) the amount of cash transferred by the U.S. Person during the preceding 12 months collectively exceeds $ 100,000.
A reportable transfer by a partnership to a foreign corporation must be reported by each individual partner. The partnership cannot file a single Form 926 and satisfy this obligation on all the partners’ behalf.
Transfers by U.S. Persons to foreign partnerships are subject to reporting. A reportable transfer occurs when (1) immediately after the transfer, the person holds, directly or constructively, a 10 percent or greater interest in the partnership, or (ii) the value of the property transferred, when added to the value of the property previously transferred by the person (or related person) to the foreign partnership over the last 12 months, exceeds $100,000. IRC §6038B. The U.S. Person must report the transfer on a Form 8865, which is filed with the person’s timely filed federal tax return (including extensions).
If a domestic partnership contributes property to a foreign partnership, the partners of the domestic partnership are each treated as transferring their proportionate share of the contributed property. Each partner has an obligation to file a Form 8865. Unlike the Form 926 discussed above, however, the domestic partnership itself may file the Form 8865 and satisfy the reporting requirements of its partners.
The penalty for failure to file a Form 5471 or Form 8865 is equal to 10 percent of the fair market value of the property at the time of the exchange/ transfer. The penalty will not apply if the failure to comply is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. The penalty is also limited to $100,000 unless the failure to comply was due to intentional disregard.
Rules For Ownership Transfers
Reporting rules apply to the transfer of ownership in a foreign corporation or foreign partnership.
With respect to a foreign corporation, a U.S. Person must file a Form 5471 if any of the following occurred during the tax year: (1) the person acquired stock and thereafter possessed a 10 percent ownership interest (by vote or value) in the foreign corporation, (2) the person acquired a 10 percent or more stock ownership interest, or (3) the person disposes of sufficient stock to reduce the person’s interest below 10 percent ownership. IRC §6046.
These rules do not require that the transfer occur in a single transaction. Rather, a reporting obligation arises if this threshold is met as a result of one or more transactions during the tax year.
Similar rules apply to foreign partnerships. A U.S. Person must file a Form 8865 if during the tax year (1) the person acquires or disposes of an interest in the foreign partnership, and before or after the transfer the person holds (directly or indirectly) a 10 percent interest in the partnership, or (2) the person’s proportional interest in the partnership changes by 10 percent or more. (IRC §6046A.)
Both Form 5471 and Form 8865 must be filed with the U.S. Person’s timely filed tax return (including extensions).
A fixed $ 10,000 penalty is imposed on any failure to disclose a reportable transfer. If the failure continues for more than 90 days after IRS notice, an additional penalty of$ 10,000 will apply for each 30-day period (or fraction thereof) during which the failure continues, up to $50,000. IRC §6679.
Does The Taxpayer Own An Interest In A Foreign Disregarded Entity?
Special reporting rules also apply to U.S. Persons who are owners of a foreign disregarded entity.
Any U.S. Person that is treated as the owner of the assets or liabilities of a foreign disregarded entity is required to file a Form 8858 with its timely filed income tax return, including extensions.
A foreign disregarded entity is simply an entity organized outside the
The disregarded status of the foreign entity is determined under
A U.S. Person that controls a foreign corporation or a foreign partnership, which corporation or partnership owns a foreign disregarded entity, may also have a reporting obligation. A U.S. Person may be required to file a Form 8858, even when (i) the person has no direct ownership in the foreign disregarded entity, and (ii) the constructive or indirect ownership is less than 100 percent.
A reportable event is generally defined as the creation or funding (with money or property) of a foreign trust by a U.S. Person, including transfers by death. It also includes the death of a U.S Person if the person was an owner of the foreign trust or any portion of the trust is includible in his or her gross estate. Transfers for fair market value are excluded. A responsible party is generally the trust grantor, the transferor, or executor involved in the reportable event. Penalties
To satisfy the Responsible Party Rules, the U.S. Person must report the event on Form 3520. This return is due at the same time as the person’s federal income tax return, including extensions, but is filed separately from that return.
Unlike the Form 3520-A filed under the Trust Rules, the U.S. Person is not required to file an extension separate from the extension for his or her tax return.
U.S. Persons who receive a distribution from a foreign trust must report the distribution on Form 3520.
The penalty for failure to timely file a Form 3520-A is equal to five percent of gross value of the trust’s assets over which the U.S. Person is considered an owner. Each U.S. owner of the foreign trust may be subject to this penalty.
The penalty for violation of the Responsible Party and Beneficiary Rules (penalty for failure to timely file a Form 3520) is equal to 35 percent of the gross value of any property transferred to or distributed by the foreign trust. Additional penalties up to the gross reportable amount may be imposed when the U.S. Person receives IRS notice of a violation and does not act to cure it.
Penalties may not be imposed, however, when the violation is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. The IRS applies the reasonable cause standard applicable to late-filing/late-payment penalties. The fact that a foreign jurisdiction would impose a penalty for disclosing the information is not considered reasonable cause. The refusal on the part of a foreign trustee to provide information for any other reason, including difficulty in producing the required information or provisions in the trust instrument that prevent the disclosure of required information, is also not a basis for reasonable cause.
These penalties are payable on notice and demand. The IRS is not required to issue a notice of deficiency. A pre-payment appeal of the penalty is not automatically available.